Sınıf İçi Gürültünün Öğrencilerin Dinleme Sürecindeki Bilişsel Performansına Etkisi / Effects of Classroom Background Noise on Cognitive Performance of Listenıng Process in Secondary School Students

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Gürültü, işitilmek istenilen seslerin duyulmasını engelleyen her türlü ses olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Gürültü ve dinleme ilişkisi üzerinde yapılan araştırmaların büyük çoğunluğu gürültünün dinleme becerisini etkilediğini ortaya koymaktadır. Ancak bu çalışmaların neredeyse tamamı labaratuvar ortamında gerçekleştirlmiştir. Oysa gürültü doğal olarak sınıf ortamında bulunan ve öğrencileri sürekli olarak etkileyen bir unsurdur. Bu çalışmanın sınıf ortamındaki doğal gürültünün etkisini ortaya koyabilecek biçimde tasarlanmış bir deneysel süreç içermesi nedeniyle alan yazına katkı sağlayabileceği düşünülmektedir.

Bu araştırmanın amacı, sınıf içi gürültünün 5. sınıf öğrencilerinin dinlediğini anlama ve hatırda tutma becerilerini ne düzeyde etkilediğini tespit etmektir. Bu amaçla 5. sınıf öğrencilerinden oluşan 146 kişilik örneklem grubuna, biri gürültülü sınıf ortamında (79 db A) diğeri de gürültüsüz ve ses yalıtımı yapılmış sınıf ortamında (36 db A) olmak üzere iki adet metin dinletilmiştir.  Bu metinlerin herbiri için ayrı olarak dinlediğini anlama ve dinlediğini hatırlama testi uygulanmıştır. Sonuçlar, gürültünün 5. sınıf öğrencilerinin dinlediğini anlama (Cohen's d= .91) ve dinlediğini hatırlama (Cohen's d > .83) düzeylerini yüksek düzeyde etkileyerek öğrencilerin dinleme performanlarını düşürdüğünü ortaya koymuştur. Gürültüsüz ortamda öğrencilerin hem dinlediklerini daha iyi anladıkları hem de dinlediklerini daha yüksek oranda hatırladıkları görülmüştür.   

Anahtar Kelimeler: Gürültü, dinleme, anlam kurma, hatırlama, Türkçe dersi, 5. sınıf öğrencileri.

ABSTRACT

Backround noise is defined as all kinds of sound that prevent to hear the desired sounds. Most of the studies related to the relationship between background noise and listening reveals that background noise affects listening skills. However, almost all of those studies were carried out at laboratory settings. In fact, background noise is a factor occurring naturally in classroom environments and affects students perpetually. Due to the fact that this study consists of an experimental process to reveal the effects of the natural background noise on classroom environments, it is thought to contribute to the literature.

The aim of this study is to reveal how the background noise affects 5th grade students' listening comprehension and recall. Within this purpose, a sample group consisting of 146 5th grade students was made to  listen to two texts; one of them in a noisy classroom environment (79 db A) and the other one in a quiet and sound insulated classroom environment (36 db A). Separate listening comprehension and recall tests were carried out for each of those texts. The findings revealed that background noise highly affects 5th grade students' levels of listening comprehension (Cohen's d= .91) and recall (Cohen's d > .83) and decreases students' listening performance. Besides, it was revealed that students both have a better level of listening comprehension and a higher level of recall in quiet settings.

 Keywords: Backround noise, listening, comprehension, recall, 5th grade student.  


Anahtar kelimeler


Gürültü, dinleme, anlam kurma, hatırlama, Türkçe dersi, 5. sınıf öğrencileri.

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