Vocabulary Size and Collocational Knowledge of Turkish EFL Learners/İngilizceyi Yabancı Dil Olarak Öğrenen Türk Öğrencilerin Kelime Dağarcığı ve Eşdizim Bilgisi
This study aims to investigate the relationship between the receptive vocabulary size, and productive and receptive verb-noun collocational knowledge of Turkish EFL learners. The participants of this large-scale study were 326 high school students in their final year. Data were collected through Vocabulary Size Test (Nation & Beglar, 2007), a receptive verb-noun collocation test -COLLMATCH 3 (Gyllstad, 2007), and a productive verb-noun collocation test modelled on Gyllstad’s receptive verb-noun collocation test. The results showed that the average vocabulary size of students included approximately 8.450 word families and this finding positively correlated with collocational knowledge of the students. Additionally, it was found that students’ receptive knowledge of verb-noun collocations was broader than their productive knowledge on the same type of collocations. In line with the results of the study some of the implications related to collocation knowledge and teaching are presented at the end of the paper.
Tam metin:PDF (English)
Akıncı, M. (2009). Effectiveness of corpus consultancy in teaching English verb-noun collocations to first year ELT students. Unpublished Master Thesis. Boğaziçi University, İstanbul, Turkey.
Alsakran, R. A. (2011). The productive and receptive knowledge of collocations by advanced Arabic speaking ESL/EFL learners. Published Master Thesis. Colorado State University, Colorado.
Bağcı, N. D. (2014). Turkish university level learners’ collocational knowledge at receptive and productive levels. Unpublished Master Thesis. Middle East Technical University. Ankara, Turkey.
Barrow, J., Nakashimi, Y., & Ishino, H. (1999). Assessing Japanese college students’vocabulary knowledge with a self-checking familiarity survey. System, 27, 223–247.
Benson, M., Benson, E., & Ilson, R. (1997). The BBI dictionary of English word combinations. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Bergström, K. (2008). Vocabulary and receptive knowledge of English collocations among Swedish upper secondary school students. Unpublished Master Thesis. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Switzerland.
Bundgaard-Nielsen, R. L., Best, C. T., & Tyler, M. D. (2011). Vocabulary size is associated with second-language vowel perception performance in adult learners. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33(3), 433–461.
Cohen, J.W. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd eds). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Demirci, D. (2014). Are the skills really integrated in the coursebooks? A sample case-Yes You Can A1.2. Unpublished Master Thesis. Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.
Decarrico, J.S. (2001). Vocabulary learning and teaching. In M.Celce-Murcia (Ed), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (pp. 285-299). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Ellis, N.C., & Beaton, A. (1993). Factors affecting foreign language vocabulary: imagery keyword mediators and phonological short-term memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 46A, 533-558.
Erman, B., & Warren, B. (2000). The idiom principle and the open choice principle. Text 20, 1: 29–62.
Firth, J.R. (1957). Papers in linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Foster, P. (2001). Rules and routines: A consideration of their role in the task-based language production of native and non-native speakers. In M. Bygate, P. Skehan, & M. Swain (Ed.), Researching pedagogic tasks: Second language learning, teaching and testing (pp. 75–93). Harlow, UK: Longman.
Gençer, B. (2004). Raising EFL learners’ awareness of verb-noun collocations through chunking to extend their collocational knowledge of familiar nouns. Unpublished Master Thesis. Anadolu University, Eskişehir, Turkey.
Gitsaki, C. (1996) The development of ESL collocational knowledge. Published Doctoral Dissertation. The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Gitsaki, C. (1999). Second language lexical acquisition: A study of the development of collocational knowledge. Maryland: International Scholars Publications.
Gyllstad, H. (2007). Testing English collocations: Developing receptive tests for use with advanced Swedish learners. Published Doctoral Dissertation. Lund University, Stockholm, Switzerland.
Henriksen, B. (2013). Research on L2 learners’ collocational competence and development a progress report. In Bardel, Camilla, Laufer, Batia & Lindqvist, Christina (Eds.), L2 Vocabulary Acquisition, Knowledge and Use. New Perspectives on Assessment and Corpus Analysis. Eurosla Monographs Series, 2. EUROSLA.
Hill, J. (2000). Revising priorities: from grammatical failure to collocational success. In M. Lewis (Ed.), Teaching collocation. (pp. 47-67). London: English Teaching Publications.
Horst, M., Cobb., T., & Meara, P. (1998). Beyond a clockword orange: acquiring second language vocabulary through reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 11, 207-223.
Hsu, J. (2002). Development in collocational proficiency in a workshop on English for general business purposes for Taiwanese college students. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania.
Howarth, P. (1998). Phraseology and second language proficiency. Applied Linguistics, 19(1), 24–44.
Hu, M., & Nation, I. S. P. (2000). Vocabulary density and reading comprehension. Reading in a Foreign Language, 23(1), 403–430.
Kadlecova, D. (2014). L2 collocations and the L2 mental lexicon. Unpublished Master Thesis. Utrecht University, Utrecht, Holland.
Koç, G. (2006). Developing collocational awareness. Unpublished Master Thesis. Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey.
Koosha, M., & Jafarpour, A. (2006). Data- driven learning and teaching collocation of prepositions: the case study of Iranian EFL adult learners, Asian EFL Journal, 8(4), 192-209.
Koya, T. (2005). The acquisition of basic collocations by Japanese learners of English. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Waseda University, Japan.
Laufer, B. (1989). What percentage of text-lexis is essential for comprehension? In C. Lauren and M. Nordman (Eds.) Special language: From humans to thinking machines (pp. 316–323). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Laufer, B. (1998). The development of passive and active vocabulary in a second language: Same or different? Applied Linguistics, 12, 255-271.
Laufer, B. (2001). Quantitative evaluation of vocabulary: How it can be done and what it is good for. In Elder, C., Hill, K., Brown, A., Iwashita, N., Grove, L.,Lumley, T., & McNamara, T. (Eds.) Experimenting with uncertainty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Laufer, B., & Nation, P. (1999). A vocabulary size test of controlled productive ability. Language Testing, 16, 33-51.
Lewis, M. (1997). Implementing the lexical approach: Putting theories into practice. London: Language Teaching Publications.
Lewis, M. (2000). Teaching collocation: Further development in the lexical approach. Hove, Brighton: Language Teaching Publications.
Lin, L. H., & Morrison, B. (2010). The impact of the medium of instruction in Hong Kong secondary schools on tertiary students’ vocabulary. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 9(4), 255–266.
Meara, P. (1996). The dimensions of lexical competence. In Brown, G., Malmkjaer,
K. and Williams, J. (eds.), Performance and Competence in Second Language Acquisition (35-53). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Meara, P. (1997). Toward a new approach to modelling vocabulary acquisition. In N. Schmitt & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary: Description, acquisition and pedagogy (pp.109-121). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Melka, F. (1997). Receptive vs. productive aspects of vocabulary. In N. Schmitt & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary: Description, acquisition and pedagogy (pp.84-102). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Martynska, M. (2004). Do English language learners know collocations? Investigationes Linguisticae, 11(1), 1-12.
Milton, J. (2013). Measuring the contribution of vocabulary knowledge to proficiency
in the four skills. In Bardel, Camilla, Laufer, Batia & Lindqvist, Christina
(Eds.), L2 Vocabulary Acquisition, Knowledge and Use. New Perspectives on
Assessment and Corpus Analysis. Eurosla Monographs Series, 2. EUROSLA.
Milton, J., & Meara, P. (1998). Are the British really bad learning foreign languages. Language Learning Journal, 18, 68-76.
Ministry of National Education - MNE (2011). Orta Öğretim Kurumları İngilizce Dersi Öğretim Programı [English Curriculum for Secondary Schools]. Ankara: MEB.
Mizumoto, A. (2012). Exploring the effects of self-efficacy on vocabulary learning strategies. SiSAL Journal, 3(4), 423–437.
Nation, P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nation, I. S. P. (2006). How large a vocabulary is needed for reading and listening? Canadian Modern Language Review, 63(1), 59–82.
Nation, P., & Anthony, L. (2013). Mid-frequency readers. Journal of Extensive Reading, 1, 5-16.
Nation, P., & Waring, R. (2002) Vocabulary size, text coverage and word lists. In N. Schmitt and M. McCarthy, (eds) Vocabulary: description, acquisition and pedagogy. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.
Nation, I.S.P., & Beglar, D. (2007). A vocabulary size test. The Language Teacher, 31(7), 9-13.
Nesselhauf, N. (2003). The use of collocations by advanced learners of English and some implications for teaching. Applied Linguistics, 24(2), 223-242.
Nesselhauf, N. (2005). Collocations in a learner corpus. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Nattinger, J. (1980). A lexical phrase grammar for ESL. TESOL Quarterly, 14, 337-344.
Nattinger, J. (1988). Some current trends in vocabulary teaching. In R. Carter & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary and language teaching (pp.62-82). London & New York: Longman.
Nizonkiza, D. (2013). Quantifying controlled productive knowledge of collocations across proficiency and word frequency levels. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching. 2(1). 67-92.
Nurweni, A., & Read, J. (1999). The English vocabulary knowledge of Indonesian university students. English for Specific Purposes, 18, 161–175.
Pawley, A., & Syder, F.H. (1983). Two puzzles for linguistics theory: Nativelike selection and nativelike fluency. In J.C. Richards, & R.W. Schmidt (Eds.), Language and communication (pp.191-226). New York: Longman.
Schmitt, N. (2004). Formulaic sequences: Acquisition, processing and use. Amsterdam: Johnn Benjamins.
Schmitt, N. (2008). Instructed second language vocabulary learning. Language Teaching Research, 12(3), 329-363.
Schmitt, N. (2010). Researching vocabulary: A vocabulary research manual. Hampshire: Palgrave Press.
Shehata, A. (2008). L1 Influence on the reception and production of collocations by advanced ESL/EFL Arabic learners of English. Published Master Thesis. The College of Arts and Sciences of Ohio University, Ohio.
Shei, C. C., & Pain, Helen (2000). An ESL writer's collocational aid. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 13(2), 167-182.
Sinclair, J.M. (1991). Corpus, concordance, collocation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stewart, J. (2014). Do multiple-choice options inflate estimates of vocabulary size on the VST?, Language Assessment Quarterly, 11(3), 271-282.
Wray, A. (2000). Formulaic language in second language teaching: principle and practice, Applied Linguistics, 21(4), 463-489.
Zarei, A., & Koosha, M. (2003). Patterns of Iranian advanced learners' problems with English collocations: A Focus on lexical collocations. Iranian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 6 (1), 137-169.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.